CD DVD Discs manufacturing China

Innove International Co., Limited


CD DVD Media

 CD DVD Replication

 Business Card CD

 Shaped CD DVD Discs

 CD DVD Solutions

 Blank CD+/-R Disc

 Blank DVD+/-R Disc

 80mm Mini CD DVD-R

 ReWritable CD & DVD

Media Packaging

  CD Sleeves

  Regular DVD Cases (PP)

  CD Jewel Cases (PS)

 Clam-shell CD Case

 CD DVD Wallets

 CD DVD Digi-Trays

 Half-size Small DVD case

 Metal DVD Storage Case

 Portable DVD Player Case

Tips on maintenance of CD±R,DVD±R...

Difference between Replication and Duplication

Quality assurance

Tips on maintenance of CD±R,DVD±R...

Custom-design CD DVD disc holder, portable CD DVD player carrying case ...

Difference between CD-R, -RW, DVD-R, -RW and CD+R, +RW, DVD+R, & +RW...

More ...

CD DVD Knowledge

Innove has been established as a leading CD DVD Media accessories provider in China, offers a full range of CD-R DVD-R discs, CD holders, storage wallets CD racks and more. Please take a quick look at the major product lines as follows:

How to determine quality of CD-R and DVD-R discs?
Cosmetic check:

(1). No burr, nor indent on the circular edges of the disc.
(2). Silk screening, if applied: clear£¬no pinhole, the color is smooth and even.
(3). No scratch. No damage to the discs.

Instrumental test:
(1). Thickness: 1.2±0.1mm
(2). OD=120±0.3mm
(3). ID=15~15.1mm
(4). Radial Noise: ≤ 30nm
(5). Push-Pull: 0.44 ≤ PP ≤ 0.07
(6). Asy. (Asymmetry) : -20% ≤ Asy. ≤+20%
(7). XT (Cross Talk): ≤ 50%
(8). I 3/I top: 0.3~0.7
(9). I 11/I top: >0.6

Block errors on a disc are not a physical thing. They are a manifestation of how a disc interacts with a player. So different players can produce different error-rates from the same disc. Although there are rigid specifications that define what a CD should be, there are no such specifications for players. Therfore, to ensure wide compatibility, discs should have low errors. Additionally, a disc that is unreadable on one player, may seem to perform well on another.

The CIRC error correction used in CD players uses two stages of error correction called C1 and C2, with de-interleaving of the data between the stages. The error correction chip can correct two bad symbols per block in the first stage and up to four bad symbols in the second stage.

BLER, or Block Error Rate, is the number of data blocks per second that contain detectable errors at the input of the C1 decoder. The "Red Book" specification allows BLER up to 220 per second averaged over 10 seconds. These days, with high speed readers commonplace, the generally accepted maximum is 50.

E11, E21, E31
An E11 error means one bad symbol was corrected at the C1 stage. An E21 error means two bad symbols corrected at the C1 stage. E31 means three or more bad symbols at the C1 stage, and is uncorrectable at C1 and so is passed on to the C2 stage.

Because the data is de-interleaved between the stages, each of the bad symbols is now in separate blocks, and so they can be handled by the C2 stage. As a result of the interleaving, one uncorrectable symbol at C1 can become up to 28 bad symbols at C2, which is why E12 is often much higher than E31.

E12, E22, E32
An E12 error means that one bad symbol was corrected at the C2 stage. E22 is two bad symbols, and E32 is three or more bad symbols at C2 and therefore cannot be corrected. It is theoretically possible for C2 to correct four bad symbols, but not all players can do so. To allow for high compatibility, we consider E32 to be uncorrectable, even though some drives may be able to correct it.

What's the difference between -R/RW and +R/RW?
-R/RW and +R/RW is the two standards of CD DVD media discs currently available in the market. DVD-R/RW is supported by DVD Forum (Major manufacturers: Pioneer, Toshiba, Sony, Sharp,Samsung, etc). DVD+R/RW is supported by DVD Alliance (Representative manufacturers including Philips,Son y, Ricoh, HP). The point to note is the compatibility, as -R/RW and +R/RW requires different recording devices. Thus be sure to verify which standards your DVD recording device supports.

What's advantage of Replication and Duplication respectively?
Duplication, also known as copying or "burning", is ideal for short run, small volume projects, or when you require an exceptionally quick rush turnaround. Replication is, however, preferable for high volume, as it's more stable for data. We're dedicated to tailoring our procedures to meet your exact specifications and needs.

What is duplication?
Duplication is the copying of data from your master CD or DVD onto recordable CD's or DVD's. Commonly referred to as ¡°burning¡±, the master CD or DVD is analyzed, checked for readability, and then copied (or ¡°burned¡±) onto recordable media. One of the main differences between duplication and replication is that replication is done on large industrial machinery, whereas duplication can be done on anything from your personal computer to larger, custom burning professional equipment manufactured by Microboards Technology, Primera and Rimage. (Note: If you are interested in setting yourself up as a digital publisher learn more about equipment now on sale here .) Duplication is generally recommended for smaller projects.

What is replication?
Replication is the manufacture of a CD or DVD from your master disc through a process called ¡°stamping¡±. A glass master disc, or ¡°stamper¡±, is created from your original digital media. This glass disc is then used to ¡°stamp¡± data onto recordable CD's and DVD's through an injection molding process. The new discs are then checked for quality. Replication is normally recommended for larger projects, as it is less expensive than duplication on a per unit basis.

What is the difference between CD-R and DVD-R?
While CD's and DVD's are both extremely versatile mediums, it is important to note that a DVD-R holds up to 25 times more data than a CD-R. Additionally, DVD's are able to handle multiple sound and subtitle tracks while also providing added protection against digital piracy.

The R in CD-R (or DVD-R) stands for the word "Recordable"; both terms are usually shortened to their common forms: CD (Compact Disc) or DVD (Digital Video Disk or, more recently, Digital Versatile Disc).

DVD-R Authoring Vs DVD-R General
DVD-R includes two types as well: DVD-R Authoring and DVD-R General.
Their physical difference lies in their recording wavelengths: DVD-R Authoring (635nm), DVD-R General (650nm). Thus different recording devices are required.
DVD-R Authoring is designed for the professional recorders, while DVD-R general for ordinary consumers.

Storage & maintenance:
Keep media discs in clean, dry places and out of direct sunshine.
Please use the specially designed CD DVD marker pen to write on the CD-R DVD-R discs.
Disc cleaning: use a soft cloth wipe the data side gently from the center to outward radially.
Storage Safety: For important data, use quality disc and be sure to re-copy every few years

Design & packaging
We offers professional graphic design and offset printing of inserts and packaging.
Design: professional graphic design, silkscreen printing for disc and label design.
Packaging options: We provide various packaging such as Shrink wrap, Cake box, CD Jewel Case, DVD case, CD wallet, CD sleeves, Clam-shell case, etc.

Discs with different contents require different master discs. A master disc can be used to replicate up to 10-50 thousand discs.


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